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Power Purchase Agreement in Indonesia: Understanding Renewable Energy Projects

Indonesia is known as the largest economy in Southeast Asia, with a population of more than 270 million people. With the growing demand for energy and the government`s commitment to reducing carbon emissions, the development of renewable energy projects is becoming a top priority.

One of the important elements in renewable energy projects, such as wind farms, solar power plants, and hydroelectric power stations, is the Power Purchase Agreement or PPA. A PPA is a contract between the developer and the electricity buyer, which regulates the sale of electricity and its pricing.

In Indonesia, renewable energy projects are regulated by the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (ESDM). The ministry has set a target of 23% renewable energy usage by 2025. To achieve this target, the government has offered various incentives and regulations to support the development of renewable energy projects.

PPA Terms and Conditions

The terms and conditions of a PPA in Indonesia differ from project to project. However, there are some key elements that are usually included, such as:

1. Term of the Agreement: The duration of the PPA usually ranges from 15 to 30 years, depending on the type of renewable energy project.

2. Capacity: The capacity or the amount of electricity that the project can generate is stated in the PPA.

3. Price and Payment: The price of electricity is usually fixed for the duration of the agreement. Payment can be made in a lump sum or in installments.

4. Performance Guarantee: The developer is required to provide a performance guarantee to ensure the quality and reliability of the electricity generated.

5. Force Majeure: A force majeure clause is included to protect both parties in case of unforeseeable events such as natural disasters, war, or civil unrest.

PPA and Feed-in Tariff (FiT)

In Indonesia, the government provides a Feed-in Tariff (FiT) program to support the development of renewable energy projects. The FiT is a premium price that the government pays for every kilowatt-hour of renewable energy generated.

The FiT program is usually offered for a limited time and is subject to availability. Therefore, developers are encouraged to secure a PPA before the FiT program expires.

Challenges and Opportunities

Despite the government`s support for renewable energy projects, there are still some challenges that developers should be aware of. These include:

1. Land Acquisition: Finding suitable land for renewable energy projects can be challenging, especially in densely populated areas.

2. Financing: Financing renewable energy projects can be expensive, and banks may be hesitant to lend to new and untested technologies.

3. Permitting: Obtaining permits and licenses can be time-consuming and requires coordination with various government agencies.

Despite these challenges, there are many opportunities for developers to invest in renewable energy projects in Indonesia. The government`s commitment to reducing carbon emissions, the availability of the FiT program, and the growing demand for electricity make renewable energy projects an attractive investment.


The Power Purchase Agreement is an essential element in renewable energy projects in Indonesia. Developers should pay close attention to the terms and conditions of the PPA to ensure a successful project. With the government`s support and the growing demand for renewable energy, we can expect to see more renewable energy projects in Indonesia in the future.